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Location & History

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Mileage Chart

 Town 

 Miles

 Wapato, WA

  7

 Naches, WA 

 13

 Cowiche-Tieton, WA 

 16

 Toppenish, WA 

 20

 Ellensburg, WA 

 36

 Mabton, WA 

 38

 Sunnyside, WA 

 38

 Grandview, WA 

 49

 Prosser, WA 

 50

 Goldendale, WA 

 70

 Tri-Cities, WA 

 82

 Mt. Rainier, WA  (Paradise) 

 95

 Leavenworth, WA 

 97

 Moses Lake  (via I-82 & I-90)

 100

 Wenatchee, WA

 108

 Enumclaw, WA (via Chinook Pass)

  110

 Mt. St. Helens, WA 

 114

 The Dalles, OR

  120

 Walla Walla, WA 

 132

 Pendleton, OR 

 136

 Tacoma, WA (via Chinook Pass) 

 137

 Bremerton, WA  (via ferry)

  143

 Seattle, WA 

 145

 Centralia, WA (via White Pass) 

 147

 Coulee Dam, WA

  153

 Everett, WA 

 161

 Olympia, WA 

 161

 Longview, WA (via White Pass) 

 167

 Vancouver, WA 

 180

 Portland, OR 

 185

 Okanogan, WA 

 190

 Pullman, WA 

 193

 Spokane, WA 

 196

 Omak, WA 

 198

 Bend, OR 

 208

 Port Angeles, WA  (via ferry) 

 219

 Westport, WA 

 226

 Bellingham, WA 

 222

 Lewiston, ID 

 222

 Ocean Shores, WA 

 225

 Salem, OR 

 234

 Ilwaco, WA 

 238

 Aberdeen, WA (via Chinook Pass) 

 241

 Blaine, WA

  241

 Long Beach, WA 

 244

 Vancouver, BC, Canada 

 295

 Eugene, OR

  302

 Klamath Falls, OR

  353

 Boise, ID 

 363

 
 
 Missoula, MT (via I-90)

  401

 
 
 Sun Valley, ID 

 503

 Glacier National Park, MT

  508

 
 
 Reno, NV  (via 97, 139, 395) 

 618

 Yellowstone National Park, WY 

 679

 
 
 Salt Lake City, UT 

 702

 San Francisco, CA 

 716

 
 
 Los Angeles, CA (via 97 & I-5) 

 1055

 Las Vegas, NV 

 1076

 Denver, CO 

 1185

 Phoenix, AZ (via Reno, NV) 

 1316

 
 
 Chicago, IL 

 1993

 
 
 New York, NY 

 2915


Yakima Valley

The Yakima Valley is surrounded by numerous recreation areas - Mount Rainier National Park, the Mount Adams, Goat Rocks and William O. Douglas wilderness areas; the Wenatchee National Forest; Yakima Scenic River; many lakes and streams; the Oak Creek, L.T. Murray, and Saddle Mountain wildlife areas; and the Hanford Reach National Monument.  Other recreation areas include the Ahtanum Multiple Use Area; Toppenish National Wildlife Refuge; White Pass Scenic Byway; Mather Memorial Parkway; and Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail.  http://www.publiclands.org/

Yakima County

Land Owners

Approximate Acres

Unicorporated-Privately Owned

25.6 %

703,848

Incorporated-City Area

1.4 %

38,483

State DNR, F&W, Other

9.4%

259,132

Federal USFS, BLM, Other

18.5 %

508,163

US Military Reservation

6.0 %

165,787

Yakama Nation

39.1 %

1,074,174

TOTAL

100 %

2,749,587

City of Yakima

The Greater Yakima metro area is situated east-west in a landscape of gentle slopes and rich silt-loamy soils of a river basin. Looking north you see Yakima Ridge-Cleman Mountain with Mount Rainier in the background, and the Naches River flowing through the valley. As you look south you see Rattlesnake Hills-Ahtanum Ridge with Mount Adams in the background. The Yakima River flows north-south through the Selah and Union Gaps connecting the Kittitas Valley with the greater Yakima Valley.

 

 City Of Yakima Statistics

 Yakima County Statistics

 Date of Incorporation

 1886

  1865

 Form of Government

 Council-Manager

 Commissioner

 County Seat  

 Yakima

 Rank in Size – Washington State

 10 (population) 

 2 (area) 

 Land Area

 27 square miles

 4,296 square miles

 Population Density

 3031 persons per square mile

 54 persons per square mile

 Urban Growth Area 

 41 square miles

 
 Urban Growth Area Vacant Land 

 3,291 acres

 
 Number of Incorporated Areas  

 14

 Incorporated Population

 84,300

 148,236

 Unincorporated Population

 near 14,000

 87,664

 Latitude Longitude

 46º57' North
120º53' West

 46º34' North
120º32' West

 Climate Dry Semi-Arid

The climate of Yakima Valley is mild and dry, having the characteristics of both maritime and continental climates modified by the Cascade and Rocky Mountains.  The Yakima Valley lies within the rain shadow of the Cascades, so the total amount of precipitation is relatively small.  The summers are dry and hot, and winters are cool with light snowfall.  The maritime influence is strongest in the winter when the prevailing westerlies are stronger and steadier.  The modifying influence of the Pacific Ocean is less evident in summer.  Summer afternoons are hot yet, due to the dry air there is a rapid fall in temperatures after sunset.

Elevation 1,068 feet above sea level
Sunshine 300 days
Rain 7-10 inches
Snow 14-25 inches
Temperature Range Highs 37Fº to 90Fº /  Lows 20Fº to 58Fº

   Low Fº  Low  High High Fº   Inches   Inches   Inches   Inches   
 

 Max

 Avg

 Avg

 Max

 Avg

 Max

  Avg

 Max

 
 MONTH 

 TEMP

 TEMP

 TEMP

 TEMP

 RAIN

 RAIN

  SNOW

 SNOW

 MONTH
 January 

 -17

  20

 37

 68

 0.77

 0.72

  4.90

 10.4

 January
 February 

 -17

  27

  47

 68

  0.72

   0.84

 1.83

 7.5

 February
 March 

 10

  30

  57

 77

  0.31

  0.73

  0.73

 3.9

 March
 April 

 20

  34

  64

 92

  0.39

   1.10

 

  0.2

 April
 May 

 25 

 42

 74 

  102 

 0.42

  0.70

     May
 June 

 30

 48

  80

 105

 0.42

  1.48

     June
 July 

 34

 56

   90

 108

 0.12

 0.47

     July
 August 

 36

 58

 86 

   110

  0.24

  1.64

     August
 September 

 24

  43

  78

 100

  0.29

 1.36

     September
 October 

 11

 33

  63

 89

 0.54

 1.01

 0.01

 2.4

 October
 November 

 -13 

 27

 48 

  73

  1.28

  1.70

 5.33

 14.8

 November
 December 

 -16

 23

 38 

   67

 1.32

 1.38

    7.97

  12.0 

 December


 History Tribal Days Of The Yakamas

In the grandfather days the Yakamas were a sovereign nation.  Smoke from army camps lifted above the valleys of the Kittitas and Yakima.  From the snowy heights of the Cascade Mountains to the flashing waters of the Enche-wana, the "Big River" which we call the Columbia, everything was theirs.  The animals, berry patches, root ground, the salmon--all belonged to them.

With tribes and bands allied by blood and speech, they controlled a vast area of what is now Central Washington.  Even today, there is but vague distinction between the elements that combined to form it.  In the process of joining together, identities of the smaller groups have long since disappeared.  All the descendants on the Yakima Reservation represent the components of this once powerful Indian Nation.  Other tribes are represented too; Nez Perce, Paloos, Umatilla and Puget Sound.

The Yakamas themselves originated from several groups that occupied the Yakima Valley from the headwaters of the Yakima River, in the Cascades, to the stream's junction with the Columbia.  Important among these tribal stocks were the powerful Pish-wana-pum, (River Rock People) of the Kittitas region; the Skwa-nana, (Whirlpool People) whose main camp stood just below the outlet of the Wenas Creek; the Pah-quy-ti-koot-lema, (People of Mountain Heads Coming Together) at Union Gap.  Next were the Ahtanum-lema who lived on the banks of the Ahtanum Creek; the Pisko-pum, (Sagebrush People) of the Toppenish plains; the Thap-pah-nish of Toppenish Creek; the Setass-lema on Satus Creek and the Chim-na-pum of the lower Yakima to the Columbia and down the latter to where that mighty flow begins bending westward.  A small band, the Kow-was-sa-yee lived on the Columbia, opposite the mouth of the Umatilla River.  West of them were the Pish-quit-pah, and a little further down the north were the Skeen-pah.  Scattered along the Columbia, from the mouth of the Snake up to Priest Rapids roamed the So-kulks, closely related to the Yakamas, who called them Wana-pum or River People.

With the possible exception of the River Rock People and Whirlpool People, who have been classified as Salishan stock tribes, the foregoing divisions were members of the Shahaptian linguistic family.  Both the River Rocks and the Whirlpools have spoken the Shahaptian tongue of the Yakamas since historic times.

Below, are several names of towns/cities as the Indians called them and what they actually mean.

 Wapato      Potato -  Indian
 Naches      Roaring Water -  Indian
 Selah      Quiet Water -  Indian
 Cowiche      Foot Bridge -  Indian
 Tieton      Not Known
 Moxee      Bog Land -  Indian
 Yakima      Big Belly, beginning of life, bountiful -  Indian


The Ahtanum Mission

In the early 1800's very few explorers, fur traders or missionaries ventured off the heavily traveled, arteries of the Snake and Columbia Rivers to come up the Yakima River.  The Catholic missionaries coming to instruct the Indians were apparently the first group to really establish themselves in the Yakima Valley, but there is some uncertainty about their first locations.  One historian (Reverend Father O'Hara in his Catholic History of Oregon) refers to Father D'Herbomez as having established the Yakima mission (Oblate order) in 1847, but no mention is made of the exact location.  Another writer (Theodore Winthrope in "Canoe and Saddle") refers to the fact that Fathers Pondosy and D'Herbomez were located on the Atinam (Ahtanum) some five years prior to his journey through the area in 1853.  This mission on the Ahtanum near Tampico became known as the St. Joseph Mission when the original St. Joseph's near Sawyer was abandoned in 1852.

During the Indian Wars of 1855-56 which ranged spasmodically back and forth across central Washington, the priests abandoned the mission to seek protection elsewhere.  The soldiers of the U. S. Regulars and the Oregon and Washington volunteers who were opposing the Indians, finding the mission deserted and a keg of powder buried on the premises jumped to the conclusion that the Fathers were aiding the Indians by furnishing them with ammunition and so set fire to the mission.  That was the inglorious end of the first mission on the Ahtanum.

The Fathers spent the following years at Fort Simcoe and from there worked among the Wenatchee, Okanogan and Spokane tribes but not among the Yakima's.  It wasn't until 1867-68 that two of the Fathers undertook the re - establishment of the mission on the Ahtanum.  The buildings were completed in 1870 and dedicated by Bishop Blanchet in 1871.

Two of the Northwest's most notable missionaries, both energetic Jesuits, located at Ahtanum in 1870 and 1872.  The first was Father Caruana and the second was Father Grassi.  It is interesting to note that these two men were among the Valley's first orchardists, setting out an apple orchard near the mission in 1872 which was irrigated by water from the Ahtanum Creek.  Father Grassi left several years later to establish Gonzaga College (now Gonzaga University) at Spokane.  Meanwhile, Father Caruana, whose special task was working among the Indians, in addition undertook the founding of both a church and a school in Yakima City (Union Gap) where a considerable population was gathering.  The school was the beginning of St. Joseph's Academy for Girls which later moved from "Old Town" to North Yakima.

So from their humble beginning among the Yakima Indians the Fathers of the Ahtanum Mission began to spread their teachings to the growing white population in the Yakima Valley.  This transition was hastened by the establishment of a new system of missions on Indian Reservations during President Grant's administration.  In 1870, the Indians of the Yakima Reservation were assigned to Methodists and it was not too many years later that the Catholic missions were practically disbanded.

In October of 1947 the one hundredth anniversary of the establishment of the Ahtanum mission was celebrated, focusing the attention of the local Valley residents on this point of interest and historic importance.  Only a short ten mile drive out through Ahtanum and Wiley City, the restored buildings of the Mission in their surroundings of pastoral serenity on the banks of the Ahtanum give little indication of the turbulent life that was their past.

(This article based on material contained in "The History of the Yakima Valley" by Professor W. D. Lyman.)

Yakima Indian War Markers – located south of Union Gap, just beyond the overpass, it commemorates the finale of the Yakima Indian War of 1855 at the Battle of Two Buttes.  The DAR erected one monument in 1917 and the Yakima Indian Nation erected another in 1918.

The City That Moved

History records note the first white men to view the Yakima Valley were members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1805.  During that period this vast area, lying at the foot of towering Mt. Rainier and its neighbors in the Cascade Range, served as hunting, fishing and agricultural land for the Yakama Indian Tribe.

The early day stories of the Lewis and Clark Expedition enticed trappers, traders and mineral seekers to the area throughout the first half of the 19th century.  As early as 1847, a Catholic mission was established in the Ahtanum area a few miles southwest of the present site of the city of Yakima.

A dozen years later, in the late 1850's and early 1860's, a permanent party of settlers began to arrive.  Some came from the Columbia River while others moved from Lewis and Clark headquarters near Walla Walla.  Military units arrived in the area in 1856 to quell Indian hostilities, and an army garrison was established at Fort Simcoe, 38 miles southwest of Yakima.  This historic fort, abandoned and neglected many years ago, has been restored to allow the public to see it in its original state.

During this settling down period, many Indian skirmishes were recorded, but in a comparatively short time, permanent and honored treaties were signed with the Yakama Nation, and in 1865 Yakima County was officially established.  A census in 1870 accounted for 432 pioneers in the county.  These hardy transplanted easterners and mid-westerners were people of vision and quickly realized the tremendous potential of the rich volcanic soil covering the Yakima Valley floor.  Although rainfall was not great, the Cascade watershed, with its heavy snows, provided an abundance of moisture.

By 1880, nearly 3,000 people were reported in the county.  With agriculture becoming firmly established, the railroads naturally followed.  In 1884, Northern Pacific extended its iron horse service to the valley.  Some of the townspeople of the growing community of Yakima City refused to make certain concessions asked by the railroad.  Northern Pacific then routed its track 4 miles north of the original Yakima City and named its terminal point, North Yakima. The railroad then offered to move any of the Yakima City buildings to its newly established community, and one of the strangest and most colorful periods in Yakima's history was the actual movement of some 50 to 60 buildings from "Old Yakima" to "North Yakima" to surround the railroad terminal.  The courthouse, banks, general store, blacksmith shops, saloons and some homes were moved on log rollers over the 4 mile trail.  Some reported that business never ceased as the buildings were strung out along the route.

On January 27th, 1886, North Yakima was incorporated and was named the county seat.  It was not until 1918 that the prefix "north" was dropped from the name.  At that time, the original Yakima City, four miles to the south, and commonly referred to then as "Old Town" by some and "Union Gap" by others, officially adopted the latter as its name.  Old timers in the area still refer to Union Gap as "Old Town."

On September 27, 1889 a franchise was given to A. G. McIntyre of Helena, Montana, to lay water mains, place fire plugs and hydrants, and sell water to the city and its inhabitants.  Charges for water were based on the size of the house served.  A four room home paid $1.00 per month, over four rooms $1.20, while use of one bathtub was an additional 33 cents.

For the first time on September 4, 1890, electric lights were turned on.  On June 11, 1891 the electric light and water works companies consolidated under the name of Yakima Water, Light and Power Company.  In 1910 the properties of the Yakima Water and Light system were sold to Mr. A. Welch of Portland who operated the Northwestern Corporation.  Subsequently the corporation was taken over by a predecessor of the Pacific Power & Light Company and in 1913 the water and power system were segregated.

The very earliest utility, however, was the telephone system which was named The Sunset Telephone Company.  Operation started on December 15, 1889 organized by Mr. John Lawrence who came to Yakima for that purpose.  The company would give services to forty different subscribers between the hours 8:00 a.m. and 9:00 p.m.  Later the Sunset Telephone Company was taken over by the Pacific States Telephone and Telegraph Company.

The organization for the first street car system was started in 1907 and was first known as the Yakima Inter-Valley Traction Company.  In 1908 it was reorganized and named the Yakima Valley Transportation Company.  In 1909 it was sold to the North Coast Railroad Company because of the effect of the depression in 1907.

At the turn of the century, nearly 15,000 residents were counted in the area, and the growth continued rapidly as man-made irrigation systems transformed the vast acreage into prosperous farms.  Those seeking crop diversification visualized fruit trees on part of the field crop and pasture lands.  The success of this venture has established Yakima as one of the most important fruit producing and diversified farm areas in the world.